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  Quotations - Food  
[Quote No.58875] Need Area: Food > Food
"[A healthy, natural diet:] 'The truth about fats: the good, the bad, and the in-between' - For years, fat was a four-letter word. We were urged to banish it from our diets whenever possible. We switched to low-fat foods. But the shift didn't make us healthier, probably because we cut back on healthy fats as well as harmful ones. Your body needs some fat from food. It's a major source of energy. It helps you absorb some vitamins and minerals. Fat is needed to build cell membranes, the vital exterior of each cell, and the sheaths surrounding nerves. It is essential for blood clotting, muscle movement, and inflammation. For long-term health, some fats are better than others. Good fats include monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Bad ones include industrial-made trans fats. Saturated fats fall somewhere in the middle. All fats have a similar chemical structure: a chain of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms. What makes one fat different from another is the length and shape of the carbon chain and the number of hydrogen atoms connected to the carbon atoms. Seemingly slight differences in structure translate into crucial differences in form and function. --- Bad fats [Trans fats]: The worst type of dietary fat is the kind known as trans fat. It is a byproduct of a process called hydrogenation that is used to turn healthy oils into solids [at room temperature] and to prevent them from becoming rancid. When vegetable oil is heated in the presence of hydrogen and a heavy-metal catalyst such as palladium, hydrogen atoms are added to the carbon chain. This turns oils into solids. It also makes healthy vegetable oils more like not-so-healthy saturated fats. On food label ingredient lists, this manufactured substance is typically listed as 'partially hydrogenated oil.' The worst type of dietary fat is the kind known as trans fat. Early in the 20th century, trans fats were found mainly in solid margarines and vegetable shortening. As food makers learned new ways to use partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, they began appearing in everything from commercial cookies and pastries to fast-food French fries. Eating foods rich in trans fats increases the amount of harmful LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream and reduces the amount of beneficial HDL cholesterol. Trans fats create inflammation, which is linked to heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and other chronic conditions. They contribute to insulin resistance, which increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Research from the Harvard School of Public Health and elsewhere indicates that trans fats can harm health in even small amounts: for every 2% of calories from trans fat consumed daily, the risk of heart disease rises by 23%. Trans fats have no known health benefits and that there is no safe level of consumption. Today, these mainly man-made fats are rapidly fading from the food supply. --- In-between fats [saturated fats]: Saturated fats are common in the American diet. They are solid at room temperature think cooled bacon grease. Common sources of saturated fat include red meat, whole milk and other whole-milk dairy foods, cheese, coconut oil, and many commercially prepared baked goods and other foods. The word 'saturated' here refers to the number of hydrogen atoms surrounding each carbon atom. The chain of carbon atoms holds as many hydrogen atoms as possible - it's saturated with hydrogens. A diet rich in saturated fats can drive up total cholesterol, and tip the balance toward more harmful LDL cholesterol, which prompts blockages to form in arteries in the heart and elsewhere in the body. For that reason, most nutrition experts recommend limiting saturated fat to under 10% of calories a day. A handful of recent reports have muddied the link between saturated fat and heart disease. [For example, in a widely-reported 2014 meta-analysis of 72 studies, researchers said there was little evidence to support the idea that saturated fats can be clearly linked to cardiovascular problems or that polyunsaturated fats are as beneficial as typically claimed. Walter Willett, the current chair of the Department of Nutrition in the Harvard School of Public Health, has been critical of this meta-analysis, saying it 'contains multiple errors and omissions' and is 'seriously misleading' and 'should be disregarded'.] One meta-analysis of 21 studies said that there was not enough evidence to conclude that saturated fat increases the risk of heart disease, but that replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat may indeed reduce risk of heart disease. Two other major studies narrowed the prescription slightly, concluding that replacing saturated fat with polyunsaturated fats like vegetable oils or high-fiber carbohydrates is the best bet for reducing the risk of heart disease, but replacing saturated fat with highly processed carbohydrates could do the opposite. --- Good fats [monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats]: Good fats come mainly from vegetables, nuts, seeds, and fish. They differ from saturated fats by having fewer hydrogen atoms bonded to their carbon chains. Healthy fats are liquid at room temperature, not solid. There are two broad categories of beneficial fats: monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. -- Monounsaturated fats. When you dip your bread in olive oil at an Italian restaurant, you're getting mostly monounsaturated fat. Monounsaturated fats have a single carbon-to-carbon double bond. The result is that it has two fewer hydrogen atoms than a saturated fat and a bend at the double bond. This structure keeps monounsaturated fats liquid at room temperature. Good sources of monounsaturated fats are olive oil, peanut oil, canola oil, avocados, and most nuts, as well as high-oleic safflower and sunflower oils. The discovery that monounsaturated fat could be healthful came from the Seven Countries Study during the 1960s. It revealed that people in Greece and other parts of the Mediterranean region enjoyed a low rate of heart disease despite a high-fat diet. The main fat in their diet, though, was not the saturated animal fat common in countries with higher rates of heart disease. It was olive oil, which contains mainly monounsaturated fat. This finding produced a surge of interest in olive oil and the 'Mediterranean diet,' a style of eating regarded as a healthful choice today. Although there's no recommended daily intake of monounsaturated fats, the Institute of Medicine recommends using them as much as possible along with polyunsaturated fats to replace saturated and trans fats. -- Polyunsaturated fats. When you pour liquid cooking oil into a pan, there's a good chance you're using polyunsaturated fat. Corn oil, sunflower oil, and safflower oil are common examples. Polyunsaturated fats are essential fats. That means they're required for normal body functions but your body can't make them. So you must get them from food. Polyunsaturated fats are used to build cell membranes and the covering of nerves. They are needed for blood clotting, muscle movement, and inflammation. A polyunsaturated fat has two or more double bonds in its carbon chain. There are two main types of polyunsaturated fats: omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids. The numbers refer to the distance between the beginning of the carbon chain and the first double bond. Both types offer health benefits. Eating polyunsaturated fats in place of saturated fats or highly refined carbohydrates reduces harmful LDL cholesterol and improves the cholesterol profile. It also lowers triglycerides. Good sources of omega-3 fatty acids include fatty fish such as salmon, mackerel, and sardines, flaxseeds, walnuts, canola oil, and unhydrogenated soybean oil. Omega-3 fatty acids may help prevent and even treat heart disease and stroke. In addition to reducing blood pressure, raising HDL, and lowering triglycerides, polyunsaturated fats may help prevent lethal heart rhythms from arising. Evidence also suggests they may help reduce the need for corticosteroid medications in people with rheumatoid arthritis. Studies linking omega-3s to a wide range of other health improvements, including reducing risk of dementia, are inconclusive, and some of them have major flaws, according to a systematic review of the evidence by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Omega-6 fatty acids have also been linked to protection against heart disease. Foods rich in linoleic acid and other omega-6 fatty acids include vegetable oils such as safflower, soybean, sunflower, walnut, and corn oils." - harvard.edu
[http://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/the-truth-about-fats-bad-and-good and http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/nutritionsource/2014/03/19/dietary-fat-and-heart-disease-study-is-seriously-misleading/ ]
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[Quote No.58877] Need Area: Food > Food
"[A healthy, natural diet:] --- What Is Cholesterol? We may associate cholesterol with fatty foods, but most of the waxy substance is made by our own bodies. The liver produces 75% of the cholesterol that circulates in our blood. The other 25% comes from food. At normal levels, cholesterol actually plays an important role in helping cells do their jobs. But cholesterol levels are precariously high in more than 100 million Americans. --- Symptoms of High Cholesterol: High cholesterol does not cause any symptoms. But it does cause damage deep within the body. Over time, too much cholesterol may lead to a build-up of plaque inside the arteries. Known as atherosclerosis, this condition narrows the space available for blood flow and can trigger heart disease. The good news is high cholesterol is simple to detect, and there are many ways to bring it down. --- Cholesterol Testing: People older than 20 should have their cholesterol levels checked at least once every four to six years. This is done with a simple blood test known as a fasting lipoprotein profile. It measures the different forms of cholesterol that are circulating in the blood after you avoid eating for nine to 12 hours. The results show your levels of 'bad' cholesterol, 'good' cholesterol, and triglycerides. --- 'Bad' Cholesterol: Most of the cholesterol in the blood is carried by proteins called low density lipoproteins or LDL. This is known as the bad cholesterol because it combines with other substances to clog the arteries. A diet high in saturated fats and trans fats tends to raise the level of LDL cholesterol. For most people, an LDL score below 100 is healthy, but people with heart disease may need to aim even lower. --- 'Good' Cholesterol: Up to a third of blood cholesterol is carried by high-density lipoproteins or HDL. This is called good cholesterol because it helps remove bad cholesterol, preventing it from building up inside the arteries. The higher the level of HDL cholesterol, the better. People with too little are more likely to develop heart disease. Eating healthy fats [unsaturated], such as olive oil, may help boost HDL cholesterol. --- Triglycerides: The body converts excess calories, sugar, and alcohol into triglycerides, a type of fat that is carried in the blood and stored in fat cells throughout the body. People who are overweight, inactive, smokers, or heavy drinkers tend to have high triglycerides, as do those who eat a very high-carb diet. A triglycerides score of 150 or higher puts you at risk for metabolic syndrome, which is linked to heart disease and diabetes. --- Total Cholesterol: Total cholesterol measures the combination of LDL, HDL, and VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) in your bloodstream. VLDL is a precursor of LDL, the bad cholesterol. A total cholesterol score of under 200 is considered healthy in most cases. People who score in the 'high' range have an increased risk of developing heart disease compared to those who score below 200. --- Cholesterol Ratio: To calculate your cholesterol ratio, divide your total cholesterol by HDL cholesterol. For example, a total score of 200 divided by an HDL score of 50 equals a cholesterol ratio of 4 to 1. Doctors recommend maintaining a ratio of 4 to 1 or lower. The smaller the ratio, the better. While this figure is useful in estimating heart disease risk, it's not as important in guiding treatment. Doctors look at total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol to determine treatment. ---Cholesterol in Food: Cholesterol-rich foods, like eggs, shrimp, and lobster are no longer completely forbidden. Research shows that the cholesterol we eat has only a small effect on blood cholesterol levels for most people. A few people are 'responders,' whose blood levels spike up after eating eggs. But for most, saturated fat and trans fats are bigger concerns. Daily cholesterol limits are 300 mg for healthy people and 200 mg for those at higher risk. One egg [white and yoke] has 186 mg of cholesterol. --- Cholesterol and Family History: Cholesterol comes from two sources -- the body and food -- and either one can contribute to high cholesterol. Some people inherit genes that trigger too much cholesterol production. For others, diet is the main culprit. Saturated fat and cholesterol occur in animal-based foods, including meat, eggs, and dairy products made with milk. In many cases, high cholesterol stems from a combination of diet and genetics. --- What Boosts Your Risk? Several factors can make you more likely to develop high cholesterol: = A diet high in saturated fats and cholesterol, = A family history of high cholesterol, = Being overweight or obese, = Getting older. --- Cholesterol and Gender: Until menopause, women typically have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. They also have higher levels of HDL cholesterol, the good kind. One reason is estrogen: The female sex hormone raises the level of HDL cholesterol. Estrogen production peaks during the childbearing years and drops off during menopause. After age 55, a woman's risk of developing high cholesterol begins to climb. --- Cholesterol and Children: There's evidence that cholesterol can begin clogging the arteries during childhood, leading to atherosclerosis and heart disease later in life. The American Heart Association recommends kids and teenagers with high cholesterol take steps to bring it down. Ideally, total cholesterol should be below 170 in people ages 2 to 19. --- Why High Cholesterol Matters: High cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and strokes. It also appears to boost the risk of Alzheimer's disease. As we saw earlier, high cholesterol leads to a build-up of plaque that narrows the arteries. This is dangerous because it can restrict blood flow. If the blood supply to a part of the heart or brain is completely cut off, the result is a heart attack or stroke. --- Cholesterol Buster: Eat More Fiber: Diet changes offer a powerful way to fight high cholesterol. If you've ever wondered why some cereals claim to be heart-healthy, it's the fiber. The soluble fiber found in many foods helps reduce LDL, the bad cholesterol. Good sources of soluble fiber include [some of the so-called 'good' carbs, like] whole-grain breads and cereals, oatmeal, fruits, dried fruits, vegetables, and legumes such as kidney beans. --- Cholesterol Buster: Know Your Fats: No more than 35% of your daily calories should come from fat. But not all fats are equal. Saturated fats -- from animal products and tropical oils [i.e. coconut oil] -- raise LDL cholesterol. Trans fats carry a double-whammy, boosting bad cholesterol, while lowering the good kind. These two bad fats are found in many baked goods, fried foods (doughnuts, fries, chips), stick margarine, and cookies. Unsaturated fats may lower LDL when combined with other healthy diet changes. They're found in avocados, olive oil, and peanut oil. --- Cholesterol Buster: Smart Protein: Meat and full-fat milk offer plenty of protein, but they are also major sources of cholesterol. You may be able to reduce LDL cholesterol by switching to soy protein, such as tofu, at some meals. Fish is another great choice. Some varieties, like salmon, are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which can improve cholesterol levels. The American Heart Association recommends eating fish at least twice a week. --- Cholesterol Buster: Low-Carb Diet: There's growing evidence that low-carb [low 'bad' carbs] diets may be better than low-fat diets for improving cholesterol levels. In a two-year study funded by the National Institutes of Health, people who followed a low-carb plan had significantly better HDL (good cholesterol) levels than those who followed a low-fat plan. --- Cholesterol Buster: Lose Weight: If you're overweight, talk to your doctor about beginning a weight loss program. Losing weight can help you reduce levels of triglycerides, LDL, and total cholesterol. Shedding even a few pounds can also boost levels of good cholesterol -- it tends to go up one point for every 6 pounds you lose. --- Cholesterol Buster: Quit Smoking: Giving up tobacco is tough, but here's one more reason to try. When you stop smoking, your good cholesterol is likely to improve by as much as 10%. You may be more successful if you combine several smoking cessation strategies. Talk to your doctor about which options are best for you. --- Cholesterol Buster: Exercise: If you're healthy but not very active, starting an aerobic exercise program could increase your good cholesterol by 5% in the first two months. Regular exercise also lowers bad cholesterol. Choose an activity that boosts your heart rate, such as running, swimming, or walking briskly, and aim for at least 30 minutes on most days of the week. It doesn't have to be 30 continuous minutes; two 15-minute walks works just as well. --- Treatment: Medications: If high cholesterol runs in your family, diet and exercise may not be enough to get your numbers where you want them. In that case, medication can give cholesterol levels an extra nudge. Statins are usually the first choice. They block the production of cholesterol in the liver. Other options include cholesterol absorption inhibitors, bile acid resins, and fibrates. Your doctor may recommend a combination of these medications. --- Treatment: Supplements: Certain dietary supplements may help improve cholesterol levels. These include plant sterols, barley and oats, fiber, and green tea. --- Herbal Remedies: Some studies suggest garlic can knock a few percentage points off total cholesterol. But garlic pills can have side effects and may interact with medications. Other herbs that may reduce cholesterol include: = Fenugreek seeds, = Artichoke leaf extract, = Yarrow, = Holy basil. --- How Low Should You Go? Many people are able to lower cholesterol levels through a combination of medication and lifestyle changes. But how low is low enough? For people with diabetes or a high risk of developing heart disease, an LDL score of less than 100 is desirable. If you already have heart disease or coronary artery disease, some doctors recommend reducing LDL to 70 or lower. --- Can the Damage Be Undone? It takes years for high cholesterol to clog the arteries with plaque. But there is evidence that atherosclerosis can be reversed, at least to some degree. Dean Ornish, MD, has published several studies showing that a low-fat vegetarian diet, stress management, and moderate exercise can chip away at the build-up inside the coronary arteries. Other research supports the idea that big drops in cholesterol can somewhat help open clogged arteries [Refer research on the Pritikin Diet.]" - webmd.com
Reviewed by David T. Derrer, MD on March 08, 2016. [http://www.webmd.com/cholesterol-management/ss/slideshow-cholesterol-overview? ]
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[Quote No.58991] Need Area: Food > Food
"[A healthy, natural diet: avoid unhealthy 'bad carbohydrates' like low-nutrient, high-calorie sugar and refined flour:] Rule No.37 The whiter the bread, the sooner you'll be dead." - Michael Pollan
(1955 - ), Author
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[Quote No.58998] Need Area: Food > Food
"[A healthy, natural diet: savour every sight, smell and mouthful and be grateful:] Food is no longer sacred to us: in becoming too efficient we've changed its nature." - Mehmet Oz
Heart Surgeon and TV personality 'Dr Oz'.
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[Quote No.63899] Need Area: Food > Food
"The rest of the world lives to eat, while I eat to live." - Socrates

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